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*The Mechanical Universe...and Beyond*

**1. Introduction**

This preview introduces revolutionary ideas and heroes from Copernicus to Newton, and links the physics of the heavens and the earth.

** 2. The Law of Falling Bodies **

Galileo's imaginative experiments proved that all bodies fall with the same constant acceleration.

** 3. Derivatives **

The function of mathematics in physical science and the derivative as a practical tool.

** 4. Inertia **

Galileo risks his favored status to answer the questions of the universe with his law of inertia.

** 5. Vectors **

Physics must explain not only why and how much, but also where and which way.

** 6. Newton's Laws **

Newton lays down the laws of force, mass, and acceleration.

** 7. Integration **

Newton and Leibniz arrive at the conclusion that differentiation

** 8. The Apple and the Moon **

The first real steps toward space travel are made as Newton discovers that gravity describes the force between any two particles in the universe.

** 9. Moving in Circles **

A look at the Platonic theory of uniform circular motion.

** 10. Fundamental Forces **

All physical phenomena of nature are explained by four forces: two nuclear forces, gravity, and electricity.

** 11. Gravity, Electricity, Magnetism **

Shedding light on the mathematical form of the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces.

** 12. The Millikan Experiment **

A dramatic recreation of Millikan's classic oil-drop experiment to determine the charge of a single electron.

** 13. Conservation of Energy **

According to one of the major laws of physics, energy is neither created nor destroyed.

** 14. Potential Energy **

Potential energy provides a powerful model for understanding why the world has worked the same way since the beginning of time.

** 15. Conservation of Momentum **

What keeps the universe ticking away until the end of time?

** 16. Harmonic Motion **

The music and mathematics of periodic motion.

** 17. Resonance **

Why a swaying bridge collapses with a high wind, and why a wine glass shatters with a higher octave.

** 18. Waves **

With an analysis of simple harmonic motion and a stroke of genius, Newton extended mechanics to the propagation of sound.

** 19. Angular Momentum **

An old momentum with a new twist.

** 20. Torques and Gyroscopes **

From spinning tops to the precession of the equinoxes.

** 21. Kepler's Three Laws **

The discovery of elliptical orbits helps describe the motion of heavenly bodies with unprecedented accuracy.

** 22. The Kepler Problem **

The deduction of Kepler's laws from Newton's universal law of gravitation is one of the crowning achievements of Western thought.

** 23. Energy and Eccentricity **

The precise orbit of a heavenly body — a planet, asteroid, or comet — is fixed by the laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum.

** 24. Navigating in Space **

Voyages to other planets use the same laws that guide planets around the solar system.

** 25. Kepler to Einstein **

From Kepler's laws and the theory of tides, to Einstein's general theory of relativity, into black holes, and beyond.

** 26. Harmony of the Spheres **

A last lingering look back at mechanics to see new connections between old discoveries.

** 27. Beyond the Mechanical Universe **

The world of electricity and magnetism, and 20th-century discoveries of relativity and quantum mechanics.

** 28. Static Electricity **

Eighteenth-cent

** 29. The Electric Field **

Faraday's vision of lines of constant force in space laid the foundation for the modern force field theory.

** 30. Potential and Capacitance **

Franklin proposes a successful theory of the Leyden jar and invents the parallel plate capacitor.

** 31. Voltage, Energy, and Force **

When is electricity dangerous or benign, spectacular or useful?

** 32. The Electric Battery **

Volta invents the electric battery using the internal properties of different metals.

** 33. Electric Circuits **

The work of Wheatstone, Ohm, and Kirchhoff leads to the design and analysis of how current flows.

** 34. Magnetism **

Gilbert discovered that the earth behaves like a giant magnet. Modern scientists have learned even more.

** 35. The Magnetic Field **

The law of Biot and Sarvart, the force between electric currents, and Ampère's law.

** 36. Vector Fields and Hydrodynamics **

Force fields have definite properties of their own suitable for scientific study.

** 37. Electromagnetic Induction **

The discovery of electromagnetic

** 38. Alternating Current **

Electromagnetic

** 39. Maxwell's Equations **

Maxwell discovers that displacement current produces electromagnetic

** 40. Optics **

Many properties of light are properties of waves, including reflection, refraction, and diffraction.

** 41. The Michelson-Morle y Experiment **

In 1887, an exquisitely designed measurement of the earth's motion through the ether results in the most brilliant failure in scientific history.

** 42. The Lorentz Transformation **

If the speed of light is to be the same for all observers, then the length of a meter stick, or the rate of a ticking clock, depends on who measures it.

** 43. Velocity and Time **

Einstein is motivated to perfect the central ideas of physics, resulting in a new understanding of the meaning of space and time.

** 44. Mass, Momentum, Energy **

The new meaning of space and time make it necessary to formulate a new mechanics.

** 45. Temperature and Gas Laws **

Hot discoveries about the behavior of gases make the connection between temperature and heat.

** 46. Engine of Nature **

The Carnot engine, part one, beginning with simple steam engines.

** 47. Entropy **

The Carnot engine, part two, with profound implications for the behavior of matter and the flow of time through the universe.

** 48. Low Temperatures **

With the quest for low temperatures came the discovery that all elements can exist in each of the basic states of matter.

** 49. The Atom **

A history of the atom, from the ancient Greeks to the early 20th century, and a new challenge for the world of physics.

** 50. Particles and Waves **

Evidence that light can sometimes act like a particle leads to quantum mechanics, the new physics.

** 51. From Atoms to Quarks **

Electron waves attracted to the nucleus of an atom help account for the periodic table of the elements and ultimately lead to the search for quarks.

** 52. The Quantum Mechanical Universe **

A last look at where we've been and a peek into the future.

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